How to format your references using the Acta Orthopædica Belgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopædica Belgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nottebohm F. Peter Marler (1928-2014). Nature 2014 ; 512 : 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mourou G, Tajima T. Physics. More intense, shorter pulses. Science 2011 ; 331 : 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruder WC, Lu T, Collins JJ. Synthetic biology moving into the clinic. Science 2011 ; 333 : 1248–1252.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim K, Lerou P, Yabuuchi A, et al. Histocompatible embryonic stem cells by parthenogenesis. Science 2007 ; 315 : 482–486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam J. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Technologies for Development: What is Essential? Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Srivastava P, Tewari VC. Morphological Changes in Microscopic–Megascopic Life and Stromatolites Recorded During Late Palaeoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic Transition: The Vindhyan Supergroup, India. In Tewari V, Seckbach J, editors. STROMATOLITES: Interaction of Microbes with Sediments, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2011, pp. 87–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopædica Belgica.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Health Check: How Much Salt Is OK To Eat? IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Reviews of USDA Biotechnology Research Efforts and Regulatory Programs and Activities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cubarrubia AP. Exploring the influence of external standards of institutional effectiveness on program assessment in student affairs. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. Congress Presses N.H.L. on Concussions. New York Times 2016 : B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopædica Belgica
ISSN (print)0001-6462

Other styles