How to format your references using the Acta Orthopædica Belgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopædica Belgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolaja K. Drug discovery: computer model predicts side effects. Nature 2012 ; 486 : 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang C, Grant PS. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors. Sci Rep 2013 ; 3 : 2393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt WH, Houang R, Cogan LS. Education. Preparing future math teachers. Science 2011 ; 332 : 1266–1267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouarab K, Melton R, Peart J, et al. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences. Nature 2002 ; 418 : 889–892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahonen TT. m-Profits. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Quantum Systems in Chemistry and Physics: Progress in Methods and Applications. vol. 26. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lenzen C, Locher T, Sommer P, et al. Clock Synchronization: Open Problems in Theory and Practice. In Leeuwen J van, Muscholl A, Peleg D, et al., editors. SOFSEM 2010: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 36th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic, January 23-29, 2010. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010, pp. 61–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopædica Belgica.

Blog post
Fang J. Cod Collapse Linked To Rapidly Warming Gulf Waters. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Causes of Injury in Automobile Crashes. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quiroz CA. A community risk assessment of 90032. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Barbecue, Smoked and Sauced. New York Times 2009 : NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopædica Belgica
ISSN (print)0001-6462

Other styles