How to format your references using the Acta Orthopædica Belgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopædica Belgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johansen JP. Neuroscience: anxiety is the sum of its parts. Nature 2013 ; 496 : 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baconguis I, Gouaux E. Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid-sensing ion channel-spider toxin complexes. Nature 2012 ; 489 : 400–405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jordan SP, Lee KSM, Preskill J. Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories. Science 2012 ; 336 : 1130–1133.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang J, Huang Z, Yi S, et al. Fe-catalyzed growth of one-dimensional α-Si3N4 nanostructures and their cathodoluminescence properties. Sci Rep 2013 ; 3 : 3504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne C. Mechanical Shock. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Urologic Robotic Surgery in Clinical Practice. London, Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer JW, Lang R, Jakab M, et al. Galanin Family of Peptides in Skin Function. In Hökfelt T, editor. Galanin, Basel, Springer, 2010, pp. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopædica Belgica.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Simple Computer Game Seriously Boosts Children’s Math Skills. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Logistics: Better Approach Needed to Identify Systemic Causes of Problem Parts. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham C. How Are Nonresident African American Fathers Involved in Their Children’s Academic Success? Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner J. A Collision at the Plate Shakes Up Flores and Leaves the Mets Reeling. New York Times 2016 : SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (3,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopædica Belgica
ISSN (print)0001-6462

Other styles