How to format your references using the Acta Orthopædica Belgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopædica Belgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Weeks ER. Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science 2012 ; 338 : 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Marone C, Richardson E. Geophysics. Do earthquakes rupture piece by piece or all together? Science 2006 ; 313 : 1748–1749.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bailor MH, Sun X, Al-Hashimi HM. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science 2010 ; 327 : 202–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Dueber ELC, Corn JE, Bell SD, et al. Replication origin recognition and deformation by a heterodimeric archaeal Orc1 complex. Science 2007 ; 317 : 1210–1213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sheriff RE, Hu YF. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2001.
An edited book
1.
IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010. vol. 32. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Staubert R. Aperture Modulation Telescopes. In Trümper JE, Hasinger G, editors. The Universe in X-Rays, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008, pp. 29–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopædica Belgica.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Scientists Break Record For Lowest Ever Temperature (In A Solid Object). IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/scientists-break-record-for-lowest-ever-temperature-in-a-solid-object/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Library Services for Those with Disabilities: Additional Steps Needed to Ease Access to Services and Modernize Technology. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
He C. Advanced Wavelet Application for Video Compression and Video Object Tracking. Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH, Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times 2017 : C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,6,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopædica Belgica
ISSN (print)0001-6462
Scope

Other styles