How to format your references using the Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hook J. Mathematics. Exploring musical space. Science. 2006;313:49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shepherd A, Wingham D. Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Science. 2007;315:1529–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biankin AV, Piantadosi S, Hollingsworth SJ. Patient-centric trials for therapeutic development in precision oncology. Nature. 2015;526:361–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lü X-T, Dijkstra FA, Kong D-L, Wang Z-W, Han X-G. Plant nitrogen uptake drives responses of productivity to nitrogen and water addition in a grassland. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiang J, Zhang C. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Nanz S, editor. The Future of Software Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. VII, 185 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chizzolini B. National and Regional Econometric Models. In: Camagni R, Chizzolini B, Fratesi U, editors. Modelling Regional Scenarios for the Enlarged Europe: European Competiveness and Global Strategies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 69–82. (Advances in Spatial Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca.

Blog post
Andrew E. Supergiant Gas Field In The Mediterranean Doubles Size Record [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Direction Needed for Educating Handicapped Children in State Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: HRD-78-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen SD. Putting out fires: How communication professionals understand and practice conflict resolution [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George RP, Moschella M. Does Sex Ed Undermine Parental Rights? New York Times. 2011;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca
ISSN (print)0001-5415

Other styles