How to format your references using the Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perry JW. Applied physics. Two beams squeeze feature sizes in optical lithography. Science. 2009;324:892–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffin JM, Stoye JP. Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science. 2009;326:530–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beachy PA, Karhadkar SS, Berman DM. Tissue repair and stem cell renewal in carcinogenesis. Nature. 2004;432:324–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zitin A, Gorowara A, Squires S, Herrera M, Antonsen TM, Girvan M, et al. Spatially embedded growing small-world networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard P. Competitive Quality Strategies. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Sengupta A. Productivity, Separability and Deprivation: A Study on Female Workers in the Indian Informal Service Sector. Datta SK, Mondal S, editors. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013. XIV, 82 p. 12 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Economics).
A chapter in an edited book
Lane JI, Witte RJ. Advanced Imaging Applications. In: Witte RJ, editor. The Temporal Bone: An Imaging Atlas. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 75–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca.

Blog post
Andrew E. China Develops World’s First Hydrogen-Powered Tram [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Adult Basic Education Program: Progress in Reducing Illiteracy and Improvements Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Jun. Report No.: MWD-75-61.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cherukuri H. 1, 3-Dipolar Reaction of gem-Dicyanoepoxide with a Fluoro-Olefin [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM, Saulny S. A Tragedy in Detroit, With a Reality TV Crew in Tow. New York Times. 2010;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4–6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca
ISSN (print)0001-5415

Other styles