How to format your references using the Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quéré Y. Academies must engage with society. Nature. 2010;465:1009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruths J, Ruths D. Network models. Response to Comment on ‘Control profiles of complex networks’. Science. 2014;346:561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royo-Torres R, Cobos A, Alcalá L. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science. 2006;314:1925–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blight SK, Larue RC, Mahapatra A, Longstaff DG, Chang E, Zhao G, et al. Direct charging of tRNA(CUA) with pyrrolysine in vitro and in vivo. Nature. 2004;431:333–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackevičius V. Integral and Measure. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Soccol CR, Brar SK, Faulds C, Ramos LP, editors. Green Fuels Technology: Biofuels. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVI, 555 p. 127 illus. (Green Energy and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Renna P, Argoneto P. Models for Coalition Management. In: Renna P, editor. Innovative Tools for Business Coalitions in B2B Applications: How Negotiation, Auction and Game Theory Can Support Small- and Medium-sized Business in E-business. London: Springer; 2011. p. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca.

Blog post
Luntz S. Stunning Photos Mix Earth’s Aurora With Bioluminescent Seas In Tasmania [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NSF Review: Review Process for the National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Pipeline Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-92-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fay C. Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Hearing On Media Curbs. New York Times. 2003;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (8,3,7,6).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Čechoslovaca
ISSN (print)0001-5415

Other styles