How to format your references using the Écoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Écoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Power, P. P., 2010. Main-group elements as transition metals. Nature, 463: 171–177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Traas, J. & T. Vernoux, 2010. Plant science. Oscillating roots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329: 1290–1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rulifson, E. J., S. K. Kim & R. Nusse, 2002. Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296: 1118–1120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Callaway, R. M., G. C. Thelen, A. Rodriguez & W. E. Holben, 2004. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion. Nature, 427: 731–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Madden, B. J., 2010. Wealth Creation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ovesen, P. G. & D. Møller Jensen (Eds.), 2012. Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bein, D., A. K. Datta & B. A. Sathyanarayanan, 2009. Efficient Broadcasting by Selective Forwarding. Pages 43–52 in G. A. Papadopoulos & C. Badica (eds.) Intelligent Distributed Computing III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2009, Ayia Napa, Cyprus,October 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Écoscience.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015, April 17. Black Hole’s Powerful Magnetic Field Observed For First Time. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Federal Research: Concerns About the Superconducting Super Collider. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, K., 2010. An explicative model of leisure-time physical activities among church-going African Americans in Indianapolis. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. & J. Koblin, 2017, April 19. For Fox News, Life After Bill O’Reilly Will Feature Tucker Carlson. New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Power 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Power 2010, Traas & Vernoux 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Traas & Vernoux 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Callaway et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleÉcoscience
ISSN (print)1195-6860
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles